A lesson in making Swedish flatbread – Halvtjock kakor or Mjukkaka – with my mother-in-law

the honest goodness of bread and butter - in this case a heritage recipe for Swedish Hulvchuck
the honest goodness of bread and butter – in this case a heritage recipe for Swedish Halvtjock kakor 


Indian naan, chapati, roti, puri, paratha and parotta; Italian Focaccia and pizza, Greek pita; Egyptian balady, Armenian Lavash, Turkish bazlama, Mexican tortillas, Ethiopian injera; cuisines the world over have a flatbread. Some are leavened and some not. Most are circular and flat and typically made of a combination of flour and water. They are used as an eating utensil or plate, for sopping up gravy, dipping in olive oil, as a medium for toppings or stuffings, or for just enjoying with cold creamy butter. They are all delicious and I am sad for people who cannot for whatever reason enjoy them.

I had not heard of a Swedish flatbread until I met my husband and got to try his grandmother’s fabulous bread recipe. Her name was Esther Ingejerd (nee Swenson) Anderson Richtik. She was twice widowed but with the help of her mother raised two children on her own on the windswept marshy tundra that is Northern Manitoba, Canada. It was a harsh life but this bread which she called “Hulvchuck” (thanks to a reader of this blog I found out it’s spelled Halvtjock) was a comfort food for her family and she made bread a few times a week her whole life.

Esther’s parents Ingrid and Jonas Swenson came to Canada in 1904 as immigrant homesteaders from Blekinge County in the South of Sweden. Esther was born in 1909 and married Nils Anderson in 1930. Nils was from Hotagen in the North of Sweden.

The bread of Northern Sweden is known as Mjukkaka which literally translates to “Softcake”. It is a round flatbread, about the size of a plate and is typically baked in a brick oven. Nowadays a company called Polarbröd seems to be the main supplier of it. I wish Esther were alive so that I could ask why she called it Halvtjock which means “half thick” instead of Mjukkaka. When I look at the pictures of Mjukkaka on the internet, I’m sure I’ve found the right bread. I may never know why she didn’t call it that but maybe that is what her people in the south of Sweden were used to calling it and maybe her recipe is a bit different. It does have some sugar and oil in it and it is a soft cake of bread so I think it must be very close to Mjukkaka.

picture of Mjukkaka or Polarbröd from Northern Sweden found on the internet
picture of Mjukkaka or Polarbröd from Northern Sweden found on the internet

Regardless, my mother-in-law, Gail Anderson is an excellent bread maker in her own right and quickly picked up the technique from Esther. No one else in the family makes the bread anymore. It has come down to Gail to pass on the method. She tried to teach me once and I was not particulary adept at it (read: pathetic).

I decided it might be better if I invited a few bread making friends over to learn from the master while I recorded their efforts. This is how it came to pass that one bright and sunny fall afternoon found Gail teaching this heritage cooking skill to my friends Tilly Sanchez and Anne Tingley in my kitchen. Anne seemed to get the knack of it straight away and has gone on to make many batches. Though Tilly struggled a bit in the beginning, her mother was Tuscan and Tilly grew up making focaccia, so it only took a few tries on her own before she too had grasped the technique.

What follows are the instructions with some photos. The photos are mostly for beginners as experienced bread makers will think them redundant. Beginners however will value the photos ability to speak the 1000 words that are lost with the lack of a family mentor or teacher. Finally there is a video to show some of the techniques that give this bread its defining characteristic shape and dimples. The video is not the best quality. My apologies for that. I’ve gotten better at video recording since then but I still thought it helpful to include this video because it captures the passing of knowledge. It also shows that the bread is not as easy as it looks to make – even for a bread making proficient like Tilly. Tilly stuck with it and got it and you can too.

My mother-in-law Gail still treats us regularly by showing up at our door with big batches of Grandma Esther’s bread – now Grandma Gail’s bread – and we love it. I hope this post will give her some sense that her skills and knowledge are appreciated and will in this fashion be passed on for future generations. When her grandchildren are ready to learn they will have a family record to refer to and we’ll hope she’s still around to give her helpful pointers as well. This bread is a heritage cooking skill and a family legacy. By spending an afternoon helping my friends learn to make it Gail has passed her skills and knowledge down to future generations.

Thank you for being such an excellent baker Gail and for helping us savour our food. Love, Karen

Halvtjock Kakor -“Hulvchuck” – Half thick Swedish bread aka Mjukkaka or Polarbröd
Esther Richtik’s recipe via her daughter-in-law Gail Anderson via her daughter-in-law Karen Anderson

gather the goods you need
gather the goods you need

1 T yeast
1t sugar
½ c warm water
3 c water
¼ c canola oil
¼ c sugar
1 ½ t salt
4 c flour plus more for kneading

1. Put the yeast, warm water and 1 teaspoon of sugar in a big pan or bowl and let it activate until it becomes foamy (about 15 minutes)

My mother-in-law Gail finds this plastic dish washing tub the perfect size container for a batch of Hulvchuck
My mother-in-law Gail finds this plastic dish washing tub the perfect size container for a batch of Hulvchuck

2. Add the remaining ingredients but add the flour slowly and stir it in with a wooden spoon until there are no wet spots.

Stir in the flour
Stir in the flour
Tilly's batch coming together
Tilly’s batch coming together

3. Turn the mixture onto a floured surface
4. Let it rest there for 10 minutes

rest the dough a bit - it's all about the gluten
rest the dough a bit – its all about the gluten

5. Knead the mixture for 10 minutes and sprinkle it and the surface with flour frequently so it does not stick
6. Use ¼ turns and push away with the heel of your hand and then turn and pull back and knead out again. When it is getting close to done it will stop taking on flour

My mother-in-law Gail kneading - She's such an expert she makes it deceptively simple See our YouTube video for more on kneading the dough
My mother-in-law Gail kneading – She’s such an expert she makes it deceptively simple
See our YouTube video for more on kneading the dough

7. Put the dough in a large oiled bowl with a tea towel on top and put in an oven that has been preheated to 150°F (turn the oven off once you put the bread in to rise)

proofing the bread in a warmed oven
proofing the bread in a warmed oven

8. Let the dough rise for about an hour until double in bulk (go for a walk)

dough rising
dough rising

9. Punch the dough down and give it about 5 good kneads and turns

punched dough
punched dough
folding the dough
folding the dough

10. Let it rise again for 30 minutes and then turn onto the counter to form it.

covered dough on counter for another rising
covered dough on counter for another rising

11. Preheat your oven to 500°F
12. Roll the dough out onto a bread board and with a sharp knife cut it into disks (one at a time)

ready for slicing into individual loaves
ready for slicing into individual loaves

13. Slap the disk down on a floured counter, pick it up and slap down to form a round
14. Repeat this; you should get 6 or 7 rounds from your dough mound
15. Let the disks rest on the floured counter top for about 5 minutes
16. Use your finger tips to punch down the top of each disk making dimples in the rounds as you do
17. Let the disks rise another 5 to 10 minutes
18. Bake the disks 1 – 2 at a time on a flat cookie sheet with no rim for 5 to 7 minutes
19. Remove the pan from under the bread and give it 2 more minutes to cook the bottom

golden brown fresh-baked Swedish Hulvchuck
golden brown fresh baked Swedish Hulvchuck

20. Let it cool on a rack and repeat the baking process till all your loaves are golden brown

Loaves piling up
Loaves piling up

21. Scrape any excess flour off the loaf bottoms.

scrape the bottom to remove extra flour
scrape the bottom to remove extra flour

22. Eat some fresh and freeze the rest in Ziploc bags. Keeps a few months without freezer burn.

Here’s the video which shows some of the techniques which are hard to describe in words and best learned with a visual aid. Good luck and I hope you enjoy my mother-in-law Gail’s bread as much as her lucky family does.


  1. Doug Weller

    Looks great. Made some yesterday on a baking course. Ordinary Mjukkaka has rye leaven, white flour, rye flour, wholemeal flour, butter, syrup and in this case fennel seeds. And of course yeast. As the leaven has to be made the day before it’s more complicated. I also made that, but prefer the Hulvchuck.

    1. Karen Anderson

      Hi Doug,
      It’s always so nice to hear from a bread-maker. Good on you for keeping the art of levan/sourdough alive.
      I love Hulvchuck too. It’s a great thing to know how to make.
      Cheers to you and thanks for leaving a note.

  2. Belle Milly

    I think you mean Halvtjock kakor 🙂 originally its a flatbread from the Kramfors area in Ångermanland, they are made with rye and no yeast actually and it was pan fried, it’s similar to the Polar breads you can buy in Sweden, but it is not the same as a mjukkaka. Sweden have many different kinds of flatbread. Halvtjock kakor are just one of them, the recipe you show here is a typical mjukkaka recipe Though https://sv.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Kokboken/Recept/Halvtjockkakor

    1. Karen Anderson

      Thank you very much Belle,
      With your help I think we are getting closer to what this bread really is.
      My husband’s grandmother also made a pan fried flat bread which she rolled out on a fancy form first. It turned out a bit like a cracker.
      Maybe that was actually the Halvtjock?
      She moved from Sweden to Canada when she was a little girl and she called this one made with yeast and flour “hulvchuk” (that was my guess at spelling – nice to learn the proper spelling Halvtjock Kakor) but I agree with you it seems more likely that this recipe is mjukkaka.
      Thank you for teaching me about this. It really helps since we no longer have Grandma Esther as our living reference.
      All the best to you and thank again for so kindly sharing,

  3. cindy

    I cannot wait to try this! Thank you for this wonderful information and fun, interesting read. My father’s side is from Sweden (in part, Gotland). My sis and her family reside in Goteborg and they buy loads of Brod Mjukkaka from Ikea. When they visited me (NJ) at Christmastime, we made a stop at Ikea near Newark Liberty Airport and bought nearly every package in the freezer case! It has LONG since gotten eaten up and my son has been asking “Can you go to Ikea today?”, “Can you go to Ikea tomorrow?”, etc. It is just not a convenient trip for me, so I started browsing the internet to see if there was an ingredient list or recipe or something I might try, so as to make this bread on my own… Voila! I have found you! Thanks again 🙂

    1. Karen Anderson

      Awesome Cindy. I’m so happy to hear this and that you found my blog. My mother-in-law is still making this bread for us and it is delicious. I hope it turns out for you. Blessings, Karen

  4. Sherra Gurman


    Are you sure about the proportions? I’m not sure what I did, but 3 cups of water to 4 cups of flour seems like a lot of water. My Swedish mother even stopped by while I was starting this recipe and said that she has never heard of a recipe having so much water per flour. Is it a different kind of flour rather than regular white flour?

    I’m still in the process of making it so we will see how it actually turns out. I ended up having to add about another cup of flour for the consistency not to be runny anymore.

    1. Karen Anderson

      Dear Sherra,
      Thank you for dropping a line to ask about this. My mother-in-law has been away but I’ve checked with a few friends that she taught and they say the recipe works. The thing is, they all add a lot of flour as they go through the kneading process.
      I hope your bread turned out as lovely as my mother-in-laws does.
      With kindness,

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